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CONTENTS 





Foreword 


V 




Preface 


vi 




Acknowledgement 


vii 




Abbreviations and symbols 


viii 


0. 


Introduction 


1 


0.1. 


Family of languages 


1 


0.1.1. 


Tibeto-Burman family 


1 


0.1.2. 


Some features of Tibeto-Burman family . 


2 


0.2. 


Geographical distribution 


2 


0.3. 


Background of the people 


3 


0.4. 


Earlier works 


4 


0.5. 


Background of data collection 


4 


0.6. 


Organization of the grammar 


4 


1. 


Phonology 


6 


1.1. 


Phonemic inventories 


6 


1.1.1. 


Vowels 


6 


1.1.2. 


Consonants 


6 


1.2. 


Contrasting pairs 


7 


1.2.1. 


Vowels 


7 



kiV 

1.2.2. Consonants ... & 

1.3. Allophonic distribution ... 14 

1.3.1. Vowels ... 14 

1.3.2. Consonants ... 17 

1.4. Phonemic distribution ... 21 

1.4.1. Distributional chart : Vowels ... 21 

1.4.2. Examples ... 21 

1.4.3. Distributional chart : Consonants ... 22 

24 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
27 
27 
30 
30 
31 
31 
37 
39 
40 
40 
40 
43 
43 
43 
44 
47 



1.4.4. 


Examples 


1.5. 


Clusters 


1.5.1. 


Vowels 


1.5.1.1. 


Initial 


1.5.1.2. 


Medial 


1.5.1.3. 


Final 


1.5.2. 


Consonants 


1.5.2.1. 


Initial 


1.5.2.2. 


Medial 


1.5.2.2.1. 


Class 'A' 


1.5.2.2.2. 


Class 'B' 


1.5.2.2.3. 


Class 'C 


1.5.2.2.4. 


CCC type 


1.5.2.2.5. 


CCCC type 


1.5.2.3. 


Final 


1.5.2.3.1. 


Class 'B' 


1.5.2.3.2. 


Class 'C 


1.6. 


Syllabic structure 


1.6.1. 


Syllable 


1.6.2. 


Monosyllabic words 


1 .6.3. 


Disyllabic words 


1.6.4. 


Three syllable words 



XV 



52 
56 
57 

••• 5o 
58 

••• 5o 
59 
59 
60 
60 
60 
61 
61 
61 
63 
63 
63 
63 
64 
64 
64 
65 
65 
65 
68 
68 
72 
72 
72 
3.1.4.3. Accusative — 73 



1.6.5. 


Four syllable words 


1.6.6. 


Five syllable words 


1.6.7. 


Six syllable words 


2. 


Morphophonemics 


2.1. 


Manner of articulation 


2.1.1. 


Voicing 


2.1.2. 


Devoicing 


2.1.3. 


Deaspiration 


2.1.4. 


Fricative 


2.1.5. 


Stop 


2.2. 


Place of articulation 


2.3. 


Deletion 


2.3.1. 


Vowels 


2.3.2. 


Consonants 


3. 


Morphology 


3.1. 


Noun morphology 


3.1.1. 


Gender 


3.1.1.1. 


Masculine gender 


3.1.1.2. 


Feminine gender 


3.1.2. 


Number 


3.1.2.1- 


Singular 


3.1.2.2. 


Plural 


3.1.3. 


Pronouns 


3.1.3.1. 


Personal Pronouns 


3.1.3.2. 


Interrogative Pronouns 


3.1.3.3. 


Demonstratives 


3.1.4. 


Cases 


3.1.4.1. 


Nominative 


3.1.4.2. 


Ergative 



3.1.4.4. 


Dative 


3.1.4.5. 


Instrumental 


3.1.4.6. 


Sociative 


3.1.4.7. 


Benefactive 


3.1.4.8. 


Locative 


3.1.4.9. 


Ablative 


3.1.4.10. 


Genitive 


3.2. 


Verb morphology 


3.2.1. 


Main verbs 


3.2.1.1. 


Stem classes 


3.2.1.2. 


Transitive and Intransitive 


3.2.2. 


Auxiliaries 


3.2.2.1. 


Tense 


3.2.2.1.1. 


Past tense 


3.2.2.1.2. 


Present tense 


3.2.2.1.3. 


Future tense 


3.2.2.2. 


Aspect 


3.2.2.2.1. 


Durative 


3.2.2.2.2. 


Perfect 


3.2.2.3. 


Modals 


3.2.2.4. 


Mood 


3.2.2.4.1. 


Negative 


3.2.2.4.2. 


Imperative 


3.2.2.5. 


Non-finite Verbs 


3.2.2.5.1. 


Infinitive 


3.2.2.5.2. 


Verbal Participle 


3.2.2.5.3. 


Interrogative 


3.3. 


Adjectives and Adverbs 


3.3.1. 


Classification of Adjectives 


3.3.1.1. 


Adjectives of Quality 



74 

75 

76 

77 

78 

79 

80 

81 

81 

81 

82 

84 

84 

84 

85 

86 

87 

87 

90 

91 

92 

92 

99 

104 

104 

105 

106 

107 

107 



xvli 



3.3,1.2. 


Adjectives of Quantity 


3.3.2. 


Adverbs 


3.4. 


Derivation 


3.4.1. 


Derived Nouns 


3.4.1.1. 


Abstract Nouns 


3.4.1.2. 


Agentive Nouns 


3.4.2. 


Derived Adjectives 


3.4.3. 


Derived Verbs 


4. 


Syntax 


4.1. 


Types of Phrases 


4.1.1. 


Noun Phrase 


4.1.2. 


Ralative clause 


4.1.3. 


Verb Phrase 


4.1.4. 


Word Order 


4.2. 


Sentence types 


4.2.1. 


Declaratives 


4.2.1.1. 


Imperative 


4.2.1.2. 


Reflexive 


4.2.2. 


Negative sentences 


4.2.3. 


Causative constructions 


4.2.4. 


Comparative constructions 


4.2.5. 


Interrogative sentences 


4.2.5.1. 


Yes/No type 


4.2.5.2. 


WH-type 




Text 




Bibliography 



109 

no 
no 
in 
in 
in 

113 

11< 
ns 

118 
118 
12S 
126 
129 
131 
131 
131 
135 
136 
143 
146 
148 
148 
ISO 
157 
15$ 



CHL Grammar Series-5 



First Published: July 1979 
Ashadha 1901 



PURKI GRAMMAR 



CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF INDIAN LANGUAGES 
GRAMMAR SERIES 



(g) Central, Institute of Indian Languages, 1979 



K. RANGAN 



Editor 
E. ANNAMALAI 



Price : Rs. 14-00 




»««» «*> 



CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF INDIAN LANGUAGES 

MYSORE-570006 



Published at the Central Institute of Indian Languages, 
Manasagangotri, Mysore- 570006 by D.P. Pattanavak, Director, 
and Printed at M/s. Raghavendra Printers, Mysore-570004.